Introducing Starknet: The answer to Ethereum's scalability challenge?

Blockchain technology has revolutionized the way we conduct transactions and store data securely. However, one major challenge that blockchain faces is scalability. As the number of users and transactions on a blockchain network increases, the system becomes slower and more expensive. This scalability challenge has hindered the widespread adoption of blockchain technology in various industries.

Meet Starknet — a cutting-edge solution that addresses blockchain's scalability challenge. Starknet is a permissionless decentralized validity rollup, also known as a zk-rollup, built on the Ethereum network.

It serves as a Layer 2 solution, allowing decentralized applications (DApps) to achieve unlimited scalability for their computations while maintaining the composability and security of the Ethereum ecosystem. Starknet leverages the power of STARK (Scalable Transparent Argument of Knowledge) technology, one of the safest and most scalable cryptographic proof systems available.

By using STARK, Starknet validates transactions and computations without requiring all network nodes to verify each operation. This significantly reduces the computational burden and increases the throughput of the blockchain network.

With Starknet, developers can build and deploy complex applications with high computational requirements on Ethereum without worrying about scalability limitations. The future looks promising as Starknet plays a crucial role in unlocking the full potential of decentralized applications and bringing blockchain to the mainstream.

What is Starknet?

Starknet is an advanced Layer 2 solution designed to scale Ethereum and alleviate network congestion. It achieves this through zk-STARKs, a zero-knowledge proof technology that enhances data security, privacy, and scalability. By implementing Starknet, developers can build and run high-performing smart contracts in a decentralized environment without worrying about expensive transaction fees or compromising the security of their applications.

The purpose of Starknet is to provide a platform for developing DApps that require high performance and low transaction costs. This makes it particularly suitable for sectors such as decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and gaming (GameFi).

With its flexibility and advanced features, developers can leverage the Cairo language and take advantage of Starknet's high throughput and customizability to build innovative and customized DApps.

StarkWare, the team behind Starknet, is an Israel-based company focused on building Layer 2 blockchains for Ethereum. In addition to Starknet, StarkWare is also developing another product called StarkEx, geared towards enhancing scalability and efficiency for decentralized exchanges.

The Starknet ecosystem has experienced significant growth, with a notable increase in total value. This growth can be attributed to the advantages Starknet offers, the innovative projects being developed within the ecosystem, and the challenges it aims to address. As Starknet continues to evolve, it holds the potential to revolutionize the scalability and functionality of Ethereum, driving the adoption of blockchain technology across various industries.

What's the technology behind Starknet?

Starknet uses advanced technology called zk-STARKs to achieve scalability as a Layer 2 solution.

So, what are zk-STARKs? They're a cryptographic innovation developed by StarkWare, and they play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and privacy of computations on blockchains. Zk-STARKs allow blockchains to move complex computations off-chain to a single STARK prover, which generates cryptographic proofs. These proofs are then verified on-chain by a STARK verifier to guarantee the correctness of the computations.

To make zk-STARKs practical, StarkWare has combined modern algebra with battle-tested hash functions. The organization has made significant breakthroughs in areas like quasi-linear PCPs, interactive oracle proofs (IOPs), and fast algebraic coding protocols like FRI.

This has made their STARK prover and verifier the fastest in the class, outperforming other cryptographic constructions. Significantly, the tech relies on fewer and safer cryptographic assumptions and is secure against quantum attacks. It's also transparent, meaning it doesn't use risky cryptographic elements during setup and has no hidden vulnerabilities.

Starknet offers a robust platform that enables efficient and cost-effective processing of smart contracts. It achieves this through a combination of different components, each playing a crucial role in the ecosystem.

Contract registry

The contract registry is a record keeper for all the smart contracts deployed on Starknet. It maintains a comprehensive list of these contracts, making accessing and interacting with them easy. It's like a directory that helps you find the suitable contract you want to work with.

ZK operator

The ZK operator is the master of ZK proofs. It generates these proofs for transactions and sends them to the execution manager. Additionally, it manages a special type of data structure called a Merkle tree, which is used to create these proofs. The ZK operator makes sure the proofs are generated accurately and can be trusted.

Execution manager (EM)

Think of the execution manager as the conductor of the Starknet orchestra. It manages the execution of smart contracts and handles transactions. Whenever a transaction occurs, the EM updates the network's state accordingly. It makes sure everything runs smoothly and in harmony.


The verifier is like a detective with a keen eye for authenticity. It validates the ZK (zero-knowledge) proofs created by users. These proofs are essential for preserving the accuracy and integrity of executed contracts. The verifier checks if the inputs to the proof satisfy the contract's conditions, making sure everything is legitimate.

Cairo programming language

Starknet was built using the Cairo programming language. This language is optimized explicitly for zk-STARKs, a cryptographic proof system. Cairo empowers developers to write complex and secure smart contracts. It provides a framework that allows developers to test their contracts locally before deploying them to the Starknet network, guaranteeing reliability and efficiency.

Proof verifier factory

The proof verifier factory is like a factory that produces verifiers whenever needed. It's responsible for creating new verifiers and managing their lifecycle. It ensures the system has enough verifiers to handle the validation process efficiently.


Starknet has a storage layer where smart contracts are stored and data is retrieved. This storage layer is based on a Merkle tree, which is an efficient data structure. It allows for quick and easy access to contract-related information, making interactions with smart contracts faster and smoother.


The gateway acts as a bridge between Ethereum and Starknet. It lets users deposit and withdraw funds from Starknet using the Ethereum network. This connection makes it convenient for users to move their assets between the two platforms and benefit from the advantages offered by Starknet.

Starknet achieves scalability through zk-STARKs, a cutting-edge cryptographic technology. Zk-STARKs enable off-chain computations and on-chain verification, ensuring the integrity and privacy of computations on the blockchain. Starknet's underlying technologies, such as Cairo, the STARK prover, and STARK verifiers, have been battle-tested and proven their reliability and efficiency in real-world production environments.

What's the relationship between Starknet and Ethereum?

Starknet and Ethereum share a close relationship, with Starknet being a Layer 2 solution built on top of the Ethereum network. This integration brings multiple benefits to both Ethereum users and developers.

Ethereum's mainnet currently processes about 30 transactions per second (TPS), which can be limited during times of high congestion. Using the power of StarkWare's STARK-based Layer 2 solution, Starknet significantly enhances Ethereum's scalability. It can potentially reduce gas fees by a factor of 100 to 200, making transactions more affordable and accessible for users.

Additionally, with the implementation of rollups like Starknet, Ethereum's transaction throughput has the potential to reach 100,000 TPS, according to Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin.

For developers, Starknet provides an efficient platform to build and deploy high-performance DApps. Developers can use Starknet's features, such as its reliance on zk-STARKs for cryptographic proof and its compatibility with the Cairo programming language.

This enables them to create complex and innovative DApps without compromising security or scalability. By leveraging Starknet, developers can overcome the limitations of Ethereum's mainnet, unlocking new possibilities for building DeFi protocols, NFT platforms, gaming applications, and more.

The Ethereum Foundation and prominent investors in the crypto space support the integration of Starknet with Ethereum. This backing demonstrates the recognition of the potential impact of Layer 2 scaling solutions, including Starknet, on the Ethereum ecosystem. As Ethereum continues to evolve and expand, Layer 2 solutions like Starknet play a vital role in achieving the network's vision of scalability, high throughput, and reduced transaction costs.

What's the impact of Starknet on crypto?

The potential impact of Starknet on the broader blockchain ecosystem is significant. As a Layer 2 solution, Starknet offers scalability and efficiency, which are crucial for the widespread adoption of blockchain technology. By addressing the scalability challenges of Ethereum, Starknet opens up new possibilities for developers, users, and businesses in various ways.

Firstly, Starknet can significantly influence the development of DApps. Developers can leverage the high-performance and low transaction fees provided by Starknet to create complex and innovative DApps.

This means that applications in sectors such as DeFi, NFTs, and gaming can reach their full potential without being constrained by the limitations of the underlying blockchain. Starknet allows for faster and more cost-effective transactions, enhancing the user experience and making blockchain technology more accessible to a broader audience.

Moreover, Starknet could have a transformative effect on smart contracts. Smart contracts deployed on Starknet benefit from increased scalability and reduced gas fees, enabling the execution of more complex computations and interactions. This opens up possibilities for sophisticated financial instruments, decentralized exchanges, supply chain management systems, and other use cases that require high computational capabilities.

Developers can build secure and scalable smart contracts without compromising on the security and composability of the underlying blockchain. What's more, Starknet's impact extends beyond Ethereum. As a Layer 2 solution, it has the potential to be adopted by other blockchains, improving their scalability and performance.

This interoperability can contribute to the overall growth and development of the blockchain ecosystem, as different networks can leverage Starknet's technology to enhance their capabilities.

Starknet can be a game-changer for the blockchain ecosystem by addressing the scalability challenge and providing a platform for developing high-performance DApps and smart contracts. Its impact can be seen in improved user experience, reduced transaction costs, and expanded use cases across various industries.

As blockchain technology continues to evolve, solutions like Starknet play a crucial role in driving innovation, adoption, and the realization of the full potential of DApps.

What's new with Starknet?

The Starknet Foundation is launching the Starknet Provisions Program — the first distribution of Starknet Tokens (STRK) to the community. Over 700 million STRK will be allocated to around 1.3 million addresses as part of the first round of distribution. The tokens are drawn from a dedicated pool of 900 million STRK for the Provisions program, which is part of a broader 1.8 billion STRK allocated for community distribution.

The token will be used for transaction fees, staking, and governance voting within the Starknet ecosystem. The distribution targets users of Starknet and StarkEx, contributors to the Ethereum protocol, and developers of selected open-source projects.

Following the Provisions program, STRK holders will participate in governance and future staking mechanisms, influencing Starknet’s evolution. The Starknet Foundation plans further STRK distributions for community initiatives, including special rebates and programs.

The Starknet Foundation emphasizes community interaction and vigilance against scams. The Provisions program is in line with Starknet's goal of promoting decentralization and engagement in the blockchain ecosystem. This contributes to the growth and governance of the network.

The final word

Starknet is a Layer 2 solution built on Ethereum that addresses the scalability challenge of blockchain technology. It offers high-performance, low transaction fees, and improved user experience. By leveraging zk-STARKs, Starknet maintains the integrity and privacy of computations while increasing the network's throughput.

It can potentially revolutionize the development of DApps and smart contracts, underpinning complex solutions in sectors like DeFi, NFTs, and gaming. The integration of Starknet with Ethereum has the backing of the Ethereum Foundation and prominent investors, highlighting its potential impact on the broader blockchain ecosystem.

Cointelegraph recently reported on the Quantum Leap upgrade by Starknet. This groundbreaking enhancement has catapulted the network's speed to unprecedented heights, enabling a staggering 90 TPS on the Ethereum mainnet.

As the blockchain community eagerly embraces this transformative innovation, other projects are inspired to push the boundaries of what's possible, aiming to reach the same remarkable heights as Quantum Leap.

Starknet's influence extends beyond Ethereum, as other blockchains can adopt it to enhance scalability and performance. Overall, Starknet plays a vital role in driving innovation, adoption, and the realization of the full potential of blockchain technology.

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