EIP-6963: Delivering better Web3 UX with multi-injected provider discovery

When we're using browser extensions to choose an Ethereum provider, how can we make the process is stable and user-controlled, given the unpredictable loading order of EIP-1193 standards? Enter EIP-6963.

The new Ethereum standard offers a solution by setting up clear communication rules between Ethereum tools and browser extensions. This will provide users with a smoother experience by making choosing and using their preferred Ethereum provider easier.


  • EIP-6963 approval: A new Ethereum standard, EIP-6963, has been approved to improve Ethereum provider selection in browser extensions.

  • Browser extension wallets: These are add-ons in web browsers for managing digital assets and cryptocurrency transactions, including OKX Wallet, MetaMask TronLink, and Binance Chain Wallet.

  • Provider integration: Browser extension wallets use a "provider" feature for website and decentralized app (DApp) interaction, but EIP-1193 limitations led to unpredictability with multiple wallets.

  • Challenges and UX issues: Browser extension wallets bring convenience but also issues like fragmented user experiences, inconsistent interfaces, and security concerns.

  • EIP-6963 benefits: EIP-6963 introduces multi-injected provider discovery, improving user experience, offering clarity, and empowering users to choose their preferred wallets. Popular wallets are adopting EIP-6963, enhancing Ethereum's ecosystem.

What are browser extension wallets?

As the name suggests, browser extension wallets and specialized add-ons are integrated into web browsers. The tool juggles digital assets, storage, and the transfer of cryptocurrencies. Some examples include:

  • OKX Wallet: the interoperable multichain wallet

  • MetaMask: tailored for the Ethereum network

  • TronLink: for the TRON ecosystem

  • Binance Chain Wallet: designed for Binance Smart Chain interactions

The essential advantage of these wallets, particularly for crypto natives, is their effortless connection to DApps. Users can carry out blockchain-based activities and transactions in a few simple steps without leaving their browser.

Despite their usefulness, these wallets come with certain vulnerabilities. Since they're browser-based, users may become victims of phishing attempts, where fraudulent websites are created to steal their money. Users must take extra precautions to make sure the wallet source is real and the websites are legitimate.

What are providers?

Developers are the backbone of the crypto ecosystem, and while they try hard to keep code fresh and up-to-date, complications to the user experience and interface can creep in, affecting a key aspect of developer success — the experience. To address this, developers must examine each touchpoint painstakingly. With a browser extension wallet, you not only rely on the protocol but have high expectations that communication between your wallet and a website runs smoothly.

Browser extension wallets allow websites to interact with them by adding a special feature called the provider. The provider bridges the website and the wallet, letting each work together and communicate seamlessly. EIP-1193 was created with the aim of improving communication between websites and wallets. DApps were also supposed to benefit by connecting easily with any blockchain, no matter which wallet the user had.

Although this approach was sound in theory, there was a disconnect regarding how wallets would inject their providers. The window.ethereum object, which allows wallets to process the relevant command, had limitations with only supporting one provider. This led to unpredictability when multiple wallets are used and hindered the adoption of new wallets in the Ethereum ecosystem.

With rising demand for decentralized platforms, blockchain solutions, and DApps, the need for secure and efficient wallets to manage digital assets has also grown.

Today, certain dilemmas and UX issues are seen with browser extension wallets:

  • Fragmented user experience: Users with assets on multiple blockchains may need to use multiple wallets. This means they must manage and remember various private keys, passwords, and backup phrases.

  • Inconsistency in interfaces: Each wallet extension can have a unique UX interface, causing confusion. Users are wise to familiarize themselves with each new interface, which can be time consuming.

  • Security concerns: Some browser extension wallets can be vulnerable to phishing attacks, malware, and other online threats. A compromised browser or extension could lead to the loss of funds.

  • Version updates: Users must stay on top of their wallet extension updates for the newest features and safety patches. Without staying current, they could be at risk.

  • Limited functionality: Browser extension wallets may not offer full capabilities, like providing liquidity or having access to more complex transaction settings.

  • Lack of integration with DApps: Not all browser add-ons that allow wallet storage are compatible with all DApps. This can cause an extra hurdle for users who want to access specific platforms or services.

  • Performance and stability: The wallet's performance could be impacted by issues related to the browser such as performance, other extensions, or updates. An unstable browser could cause the wallet to crash.

EIP-6963 solution: multi-injected provider discovery

In May 2023, the new Ethereum standard, EIP-6963, was proposed to fix unwritten standards like window.ethereum EIP-6963 allows DApps to reliably discover and connect with all installed wallets on a user's browser. The new Ethereum standard was approved in October 2023.

Revolutionizing discovery

Users have long been limited by the traditional window.ethereum approach, causing conflicts and difficulty when attempting to access DApps. EIP-6963 has streamlined this process by introducing a new discovery mechanism. This new avenue allows for multiple browser extension wallets to exist effortlessly. This groundbreaking change is a major positive for users and the entire Ethereum ecosystem.

Boosted User Experience

EIP-6963 is not just about functionality. It allows wallets to inject data such as names, logos, universally unique identifiers, and reverse domain name service, supporting a smooth and user-friendly interface. Applications can showcase these details so users know which wallet they interact with, providing clarity. This can lead to fewer disputes and a reliable and improved user experience.

How could EIP-6963 improve Web3 UX?

As mentioned earlier, the UX can make or break a product. It also plays a pivotal role in determining the adoption and popularity of any new wallet or standard.

For crypto adoption to keep growing, the link between users and technology must be effortless, understandable, and without obstruction. EIP-6963 provides users with this by guaranteeing that those who use multiple wallets can do so without the complications and unpredictability of the past.

User-centric improvements

The Ethereum ecosystem has always been about decentralization, empowerment, and user choice. EIP-6963 amplifies these values by putting the user at the forefront. There's no need to worry about grappling with which wallet a DApp would connect to or turning off specific extensions to guarantee connectivity.

With EIP-6963, the user experience becomes stable and predictable, and the power of choice is restored to where it truly belongs – with the user.

Providing seamless interactions

Many believe that the genius of EIP-6963 lies not just in its user-centric approach but also in its ability to drastically improve communication between DApps and multiple wallets. Before, the disjointed communication paradigm often led to conflicts and confusion. EIP-6963 streamlines this, providing a unified channel where multiple wallets can coexist, interact, and offer their services without stepping on each other's toes.

The significance of the impact that EIP-6963 may have on Web3 can't be overlooked. Its focus on user experience and integration makes mainstream adoption of Ethereum easier. It's essential to continue to do your research on the new standard before participating in it.

Which wallets use EIP-6963?

As of October 2023, the following wallets support EIP-6963:

  • OKX Wallet

  • MetaMask

  • Coinbase Wallet

  • Trust

  • Rainbow

  • Bitski

  • TokenPocket

  • Brave

  • xDEFI

  • Phantom

  • Zerion

  • Enkrypt

  • Frontier

  • Spot

  • Talisman

Since there's a new standard, more browser wallet extensions should be adapted into the future.

The final word

EIP-6963, a breakthrough standard in the Ethereum ecosystem, emerged in response to the pressing need for more streamlined wallet interactions. The specification aims to improve how DApps discover and communicate with installed wallets on a user's browser. By offering a unified communication channel, it circumvents the traditional limitations and unpredictabilities of the window.ethereum method.

The promise of EIP-6963 is vast – it envisions a future where Ethereum wallet interactions are seamless, user-centric, and eliminate the roadblocks EIP-1146 presented. With its emphasis on user choice and stability, EIP-6963 doesn't just address current challenges, it lays the groundwork for a more intuitive and cohesive Ethereum experience. It'll help support the Ethereum community to take a significant step towards a more inclusive and user-friendly future.

This article may cover content on products that are not available in your region. It is provided for general informational purposes only, no responsibility or liability is accepted for any errors of fact or omission expressed herein. It represents the personal views of the author(s) and it does not represent the views of OKX. It is not intended to provide advice of any kind, including but not limited to: (i) investment advice or an investment recommendation; (ii) an offer or solicitation to buy, sell, or hold digital assets, or (iii) financial, accounting, legal, or tax advice. Digital asset holdings, including stablecoins and NFTs, involve a high degree of risk, can fluctuate greatly, and can even become worthless. You should carefully consider whether trading or holding digital assets is suitable for you in light of your financial condition. Please consult your legal/tax/investment professional for questions about your specific circumstances. OKX Web3 features, including OKX Web3 Wallet and OKX NFT Marketplace, are subject to separate terms of service at
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