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Transactions and data flow

Transactions and data flow#

The process of validating a specific transaction within the batch typically involves three steps:

  1. Trusted state: This state is given by the trusted sequencer almost instantaneously. The state is updated on layer 2, but has not yet reached layer 1.
  2. Virtual state: Batches have been sequenced and data is on layer 1. At this point, transactions and data can not be modified as the state is final, yet they are not yet proven and are available on layer 1 for anyone to prove.
  3. Verified state: ZK-proof has been posted on layer 1, and the smart contract verifies the virtual state, allowing for the withdrawal of funds.

layer 2 State Stages

Data flow in X Layer#

Transactions on the X Layer network have a typical flow starting from the users’ interactions with their wallet on X Layer, to how the transactions are batched, sequenced, and aggregated on Ethereum layer 1:

  1. Transactions are submitted to X Layer.
  2. Transactions are executed almost instantly.
  3. Transactions are batched together using data encryption methods.
  4. Batches are sequenced and sent to Ethereum layer 1.
  5. Consolidated finality is achieved on Ethereum layer 1 with the power of ZK-proofs.

Transactions and Data Flow

1. Submitting transactions#

As a user, you submit transactions by signing transactions and sending them through the JSON-RPC interface.

2. Executing transactions#

The transactions are then stored in the pending transaction pool, where the sequencer node running the ZKEVM software picks these transactions up and decides which ones it wants to process or discard. The sequencer will do a few of the following checks to see if the transaction should be discarded or processed:

  1. If the sender has sufficient funds to complete the transaction
  2. If the smart contract called actually exists and contains valid bytecode
  3. If the transaction is not a duplicate
  4. If the transaction does not involve a "double-spend", which means the sender’s funds have not already been used in another transaction

Once the transaction is considered valid, the sequencer will update the X Layer state. Users will experience transactions going through almost instantly. From here onwards, the user remains engaged in the X Layer layer 2 state. Everything that follows involves sharing transaction data back to Ethereum layer 1, but this step is only important for users who wish to transfer their funds from X Layer layer 2 back to Ethereum layer 1.

3. Batching transactions#

The sequencer combines multiple transactions into a single batch and sends them to the ZkEVM.sol smart contract. This contract is stored on Ethereum mainnet and also has a separate version on the Ethereum Sepolia testnet. Batches are not necessarily validated or confirmed at this stage.

4. Verifying transactions#

Using ZKPs, the ZkEVM.sol smart contract acts as a verifier in verifying transactions. It verifies whether the batch just received is valid or not, through sending the batch to an aggregator node.

5. Generating & verifying zk-proofs/validity proofs#

The ZkEVM.sol smart contract sends the batch it just received to an aggregator node, which is a machine running ZKEVM software that communicates with a ZKProver. The flow is as follows:

  • The aggregator receives the batch from the smart contract
  • The aggregator sends the batch to the ZKProver
  • The ZKProver creates multiple ZK-STARKs -> a single ZK-STARK -> a ZK-SNARK
  • The ZK-SNARK (the validity proof) gets sent back to the aggregator
  • The aggregator sends back the validity proof to the ZkEVM.sol smart contract
  • ZkEVM.sol verifies the validity proof
    • If the validity proof is valid, accept it
    • If it is not valid, reject it

6. Reading events on X Layer#

Finally, DApps read information from X Layer through the synchronizer. It reads events from the Ethereum smart contract(s), storing knowledge of both the ZK-validity proofs from the aggregator, and the batches submitted from the sequencer. This way, DApps can easily get a view of the state of X Layer via JSON-RPC.

To find answers to more transaction-related questions, you can visit Polygon’s zkEVM protocol FAQ for more info.
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