VRF Security Considerations#

Gaining access to high quality randomness on-chain requires a solution like OKTC’s VRF, but it also requires you to understand some of the ways that miners or validators can potentially manipulate randomness generation. Here are some of the top security considerations you should review in your project.

Use requestId to match randomness requests with their fulfillment in order#

If your contract could have multiple VRF requests in flight simultaneously, you must ensure that the order in which the VRF fulfillments arrive cannot be used to manipulate your contract’s user-significant behavior.

Blockchain miners/validators can control the order in which your requests appear on-chain, and hence the order in which your contract responds to them.

For example, if you made randomness requests A, B, C in short succession, there is no guarantee that the associated randomness fulfillments will also be in order A, B, C. The randomness fulfillments might just as well arrive at your contract in order C, A, B or any other order.

We recommend using the requestID to match randomness requests with their corresponding fulfillments.

Do not re-request randomness#

Any re-request of randomness is an incorrect use of VRF. Doing so would give the VRF service provider the option to withhold a VRF fulfillment if the outcome is not favorable to them and wait for the re-request in the hopes that they get a better outcome, similar to the considerations with block confirmation time.

Re-requesting randomness is easily detectable on-chain and should be avoided for use cases that want to be considered as using VRF correctly.

Don’t accept bids/bets/inputs after you have made a randomness request#

Consider the example of a contract that mints a random NFT in response to a user’s actions.

The contract should:

  1. Record whatever actions of the user may affect the generated NFT.
  2. Stop accepting further user actions that might affect the generated NFT and issue a randomness request.
  3. On randomness fulfillment, mint the NFT.

Generally speaking, whenever an outcome in your contract depends on some user-supplied inputs and randomness, the contract should not accept any additional user-supplied inputs after it submits the randomness request.

fulfillRandomWords must not revert#

If your fulfillRandomWords() implementation reverts, the VRF service will not attempt to call it a second time. Make sure your contract logic does not revert. Consider simply storing the randomness and taking more complex follow-on actions in separate contract calls made by you, your users.

Use VRFConsumerBase in your contract, to interact with the VRF service#

If you implement the subscription method, use VRFConsumerBase. It includes a check to ensure the randomness is fulfilled by VRFCoordinator. For this reason, it is a best practice to inherit from VRFConsumerBase. Similarly, don’t override rawFulfillRandomness.

Use VRFWrapperConsumer.sol in your contract, to interact with the VRF service#

If you implement the direct funding method, use VRFWrapperConsumer. It includes a check to ensure the randomness is fulfilled by the VRFWrapper. For this reason, it is a best practice to inherit from VRFWrapperConsumer. Similarly, don’t override rawFulfillRandomWords.