How to premine, mine, and mint Runes on Bitcoin - A complete guide


With the anticipation of the Bitcoin Halving, all eyes are on the creator of ordinals, Casey Rodarmor, who has announced that the Runes protocol will launch at the same time. Will the protocol live up to its potential and make up for what BRC-20 allegedly lacks?

Only time will tell. But for those who are already excited about Runes, the question is how to get involved. So in this article we'll explain how you can premine, mine, and mint Runes on Bitcoin.


  • Rune 101: Runes, unlike BRC-20, are unique digital assets on the blockchain that should be easy to generate and help minimize blockchain bloat.

  • Etching process: Creating a Rune involves defining its attributes and initial distribution, which may include a specified period for developers to acquire tokens before the official release.

  • Minting mechanics: Anyone who meets the requirements can mint runes. They can also be made through a special process with specific rules, which helps control the number of runes that are created.

  • Premine purpose: The premine phase promotes Rune's growth by involving creators and contributors in community initiatives.

  • Innovative mining: Rather than depending on computational mining, Runes use a distribution approach that engages the community and promotes a varied allocation, with direct participation from members.

How to premine Runes

The idea of "Runes" can be understood as a distinct digital asset or token within the ordinal community. Clear guidelines govern the production, allocation, and management of these Runes, similar to the process of creating and overseeing traditional currencies, but with the added advantages of flexibility and protection provided by blockchain innovation.

The process of etching Runes

Etching creates a new Rune on the blockchain. This includes establishing the guidelines, features, and initial distribution of the Rune. A crucial element of this procedure is the "premine."

The term "premine" describes the initial distribution of a specific amount of Rune to the maker or carver before it is released to the public. This stage isn't required, but it serves an essential purpose such as motivating creators, financing future progress, or allotting tokens for community programs.

Minting mechanics: open and closed mints

The concept of "minting," is the process of creating additional units of the Rune. Minting can either be accessible to everyone ("open mint") or limited under specific requirements ("closed mint"). When the Runes are etched, the conditions for minting are determined and specify the method and timing for producing more Runes.

  • Open Mint: Individuals can generate and assign Rune units to themselves if they adhere to the predetermined conditions.

  • Closed Mint: The mint will shut down if conditions aren't fulfilled, such as meeting a threshold or exceeding a time restriction.

Terms and conditions of minting

The terms set during the etching process include:

  • Cap: Once the maximum limit of minting a Rune has been reached, no more mints will be allowed.

  • Amount: Each mint transaction creates a set number of new Rune units.

  • Start and End Heights: These terms determine the range of blockchain heights in which the Rune can be created, either by using exact block heights or by measuring from the block in which the Rune was etched.

Runes' premining and minting processes share some exciting features:

  • Decentralization: The setup for premining and minting allows for a decentralized system with proper checks, increasing the safety and fairness, of token creation and distribution.

  • Incentive structures: Since creators receive a portion of the premine, they're given tangible ownership in the game. This might encourage their genuine commitment to Runes' progress and expansion.

  • Governance and flexibility: Having specific terms for minting gives users a system that's both flexible and strong. This means that the management of the Runes might be able to adapt to different strategies in the future.

What's the difference between mining Runes and mining Bitcoin?

Unlike traditional Bitcoin mining, Runes mining uses a unique allocation method through RSICs (Rune Specific Inscription Circuits), allowing individuals to mine runes within the Bitcoin network. This method is specifically designed to provide a more dynamic and varied approach to obtaining and distributing tokens, in contrast to Bitcoin's reliance on computational power for mining.

Runes mining promotes a peer-to-peer allocation mechanism, offering various allocation types including flat, boosted, random, and halvening distributions, directly engaging the community in the mining process.

Runes mining

Mining Runes is different from traditional Bitcoin mining in several key ways:

  • Mechanism: Traditional Bitcoin mining relies on solving complex cryptographic puzzles using computational power, while Runes mining involves a unique peer-to-peer allocation system facilitated by RSICs, focusing more on community engagement rather than computational challenges.

  • Allocation: Bitcoin mining rewards are based on block discovery and confirmation, whereas Runes employs diverse allocation types, including flat, boosted, and random distributions, offering a nuanced approach to rewards.

  • Community Engagement: Mining Runes relies heavily on community involvement, as it requires activating RSIC and following specific rules for distributing Runes. This helps cultivate a more engaged community ecosystem.

Bitcoin mining

Here's how Bitcoin mining is different than Runes mining.

  • Computational work: Bitcoin mining requires significant computational power to solve cryptographic puzzles.

  • Block rewards: For every block they successfully mine, miners receive newly minted bitcoins and transaction fees as a reward.

  • Energy consumption: Mining requires a lot of energy because of the extensive computational tasks involved.

  • Hardware: Efficiently mining Bitcoin requires specialized hardware, such as ASIC miners.

  • Decentralization and security: Mining can enhance and secure Bitcoin's decentralization.

How to mint your own Runes

Creating your Runes on the Bitcoin network is pretty straightforward but here are some aspects to keep in mind.

1. Token issuance

To create a new Rune, you must first initiate an issuance transaction. This step specifies the token's symbol, overall supply, and decimal places. The token supply is then tied to a particular unspent transaction output (UTXO), which grants precise oversight of the token's distribution and administration.

2. Data storage and management

Runes uses the OP_RETURN function for data storage, while the Ordinals protocol stores data in the witness part of a transaction. This method makes sure that token data is distinct from transactional data, making token management simpler and more transparent.

3. Transfer mechanism

Transferring Runes entails dividing a UTXO into multiple new UTXOs, each representing a fraction of the initial tokens to be distributed to various recipients. This approach ensures token monitoring accuracy and the safety and validity of transactions.

4. Marketplace integration

While our primary focus here is on minting and transferring tokens, the broader vision for Runes includes creating an ecosystem where these tokens can be easily traded, used in applications, or integrated into services. This involves developing platforms and tools that support the Runes protocol, ensuring compatibility and ease of use.

What are the benefits and risks associated with minting your own Runes?

Minting Runes comes both with benefits and risks so let's cover them both.


  • Network participation: The growth and security of the Rune ecosystem is supported by the contribution of Minters.

  • Ownership: Creating new Runes through minting brings true personal ownership into play.

  • Community: Engaging in minting while being in touch with the community can strengthen bonds and increase engagement.


  • Market volatility: The prices of recently created Runes can vary greatly depending on current market patterns.

  • Regulatory uncertainty: The rules and regulations surrounding crypto are constantly changing and the legal status of Runes isn't clear yet.

  • Technical challenges: The minting process is somewhat technical, which can be a challenge for some.

How does minting Runes benefit Bitcoin?

Creating Runes through the minting process can improve Bitcoin for at least two reasons:

  • It can simplify the generation and control of fungible tokens

  • It could address the deficiencies and complications of previous protocols such as BRC-20 and Ordinals


Runes follow Bitcoin's UTXO model, which prevents the creation of superfluous UTXOs that clog the network. This could resolve a major problem that emerged with the release of BRC-20 tokens and their excessive generation of these unnecessary outputs.

The main goal of Runes is to prioritize simplicity and effectiveness in its design and execution, making it easier for developers to use and fostering innovation within the Bitcoin community. Unlike BRC-20 tokens and other protocols that use external data or native tokens, Runes streamlines the tokenization process on Bitcoin, resulting in a smoother user experience and improved management of UTXOs. Using this less complicated method could draw in greater attention and involvement from developers, potentially driving faster innovation and a wider acceptance of Bitcoin-based tokens.


In addition, the Runes protocol enables the effortless generation and exchange of tokens by using the OP_RETURN feature to store data in transactions. This approach differs from Ordinals and other protocols as it doesn't add unnecessary information to the blockchain, reducing the potential for blockchain overload and increasing scalability.

Runes's flexibility in token management and user-friendly design highlights its potential to significantly enhance the efficiency of asset issuance on the Bitcoin network, encouraging a more sustainable and scalable approach to tokenization. Despite its potential, implementing Runes has challenges, such as the requirement for wider community support and resolving technical and standardization concerns. Some community members switch off and ignore Runes; others look forward to how the halving will influence the protocol.

The final word

The main goal of Runes' design is to reduce the amount of data stored on the blockchain by implementing a UTXO-based system for tracking token balances rather than the address-based system used by other protocols. This could help address concerns regarding the scalability and efficiency of Bitcoin-based fungible tokens .

That being said, it is still early days and the adoption of Runes might face challenges to become a generally accepted standard. As always in crypto, it's important to keep up to date with the latest updates and community guidelines. As the protocol develops, more tools and resources will likely be released to help users efficiently mint and handle their Runes.

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